Myth and Meaning
chapter 5 images
The Twelve Olympians
(Hades + Dionysus = fourteen)
rules the sky (and in reality, most of the earth)
attributes: thunderbolt, aegis (shield), eagle, oak tree
Alpheus river), Dodona
of Zeus in his Temple at Olympia: one of the seven wonders of the ancient
world (another reconstruction of the
statue) (and another). Compare to the Lincoln
Memorial in Washington D.C. and to the seated
statue of Lincoln).
HERA (Juno) is
sister/wife to Zeus, goddess of marriage and childbirth
epithets: "ox-eyed" and "white-armed"
sacred precinct: Argos, temple at
POSEIDON (Neptune) rules the sea
rules the Underworld
HEPHAESTUS (Vulcan) is the god of the forge
this image of the statue of Vulcan forged for the 1904 World's Fair in St.
Louis, presently on display in Alabama (AP
Photo/Birmingham Post, Christine Prichard, March 03, 2004)
ARES (Mars) is the god of war
APOLLO (Apollo) is
the god of light, music, prophecy
is the messenger of the gods
DIONYSUS (Bacchus) is the god of wine,
fertility, and theater
HESTIA (Vesta) is the goddess of the hearth
ARTEMIS (Diana) is the goddess of the hunt,
APHRODITE (Venus) is the goddess of erotic love
ATHENA (Minerva) is the goddess of wisdom,
weaving, and war
Role of Fortune in Human Life:
Solon: "And so then, Croesus, a human
being is completely a thing of chance...good fortune keeps [doom and desire]
from [a lucky man], and he is unmaimed, free from disease, does not suffer
evils, and has fine children and a fine appearance. If in addition to these
things he still ends his life well, this is the one whom you seek who is
worthy to be called happy. Before he dies do not yet call him happy, but
"Happy" comes from the word "hap,"
meaning "chance. Cf. "happenstance" and "hapless". Things that cause our
good or bad fortunes are out of our control. In Latin, the word "felix" (cf.
English "felicitous") means both "happy" and "fortunate" depending on the
context. For Herodotus, you can enjoy your good "fortune" while alive, but
only be deemed "happy" after the final act has been played.