The Divine Hierarchy (I am in the
process of working this out...)
Gods: Olympian and Chthonic (from chthonos, "earth")
Monsters: offspring of a human and an animal, with divine intervention
Creatures: offspring of a god and an animal
Biforms: some combination of animals, sometimes including a pinch of
Muses: daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, provide divine inspiration to
Demigods: one immortal parent
Heroes: mortal but can go beyond human limits, honored with cult
Zeus and Monotheism: an iffy
Zeus' interest in protecting the morality of the universe
Other gods' (mostly goddesses' ability) to sway/thwart/ him
see cartoon (source unknown)
Greek Humanism: Is Man free to act
or limited by fate?
Role of Fortune in Human Life:
Solon: "And so then, Croesus, a human
being is completely a thing of chance...good fortune keeps [doom and desire]
from [a lucky man], and he is unmaimed, free from disease, does not suffer
evils, and has fine children and a fine appearance. If in addition to these
things he still ends his life well, this is the one whom you seek who is
worthy to be called happy. Before he dies do not yet call him happy, but
only fortunate." (M&L p 137)
"Happy" comes from the word "hap,"
meaning "chance. Cf. "happenstance" and "hapless". Things that cause our
good or bad fortunes are out of our control. In Latin, the word "felix" (cf.
English "felicitous") means both "happy" and "fortunate" depending on the
context. For Herodotus, you can enjoy your good "fortune" while alive, but
only be deemed "happy" after the final act has been played.
Story of Cleobis and Biton:
Statues in Delphi Museum